Bi (Ritual Disk)

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Object Name: 
Bi (Ritual Disk)
Accession Number: 
Overall Diam (max): 16.4 cm, Th: 0.5 cm; Perforation Diam: 6.3 cm
On Display
about 350-150 BCE
Web Description: 
仿玉涡纹玻璃璧 Beginning more than 4,000 years ago, disk-shaped bi made from jade were buried in graves with the deceased to represent the status and power of the ruling class. When Chinese glassmakers became skilled in casting, they began to make bi from glass as a substitute material, often in colors that imitate natural stones such as jade. The spiral "涡纹" patterns on this example represent water.
Musso, F. P., Source
Primary Description: 
Bi (Ritual Disk). Opaque green glass; cast, carved. Carved on each face with lines forming a narrow border about 0.4 cm wide at both rim and perforation edge; otherwise both faces entirely covered with cut water spirals.
Exhibition of East Asiatic Glass
Toledo Museum of Art 1948-10-03 through 1948-10-31
La escultura en vidrio (2017) illustrated, p. 130 (fig. 3.24);
Escort Guide to the Galleries (2013) illustrated, p. 25; BIB# 134015
Escort Guide to the Galleries [V4/2013] (2013) illustrated, p. 25; BIB# 134856
Tesori del Vetro al Corning Museum of Glass (2005-12) illustrated, p. 20, fig. 4; BIB# AI67739
Plastik sanatlarda cam malzemenin uygulanisi (2003) illustrated, p. 20, fig. 2.6; BIB# 120381
Chemical Analyses of Early Glasses (Volume 1) (1999) pp. 150, 250; BIB# 61154
A Short History of Glass (1990 edition) (1990) illustrated, pp. 34-35, #28; BIB# 33211
A Short History of Glass (1980 edition) (1980) illustrated, p. 35, #27; BIB# 21161
Le Verre dans Tous ses Reflets (1973-06) pp. 36-41, ill. p. 36, left;