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Conservation Research and Publications

Conservation Research and Publications

The Conservation Department is involved in researching the technology and nature of glass and glass deterioration as well as developing new conservation treatments for glass. The most important contributions include the study of crizzling or atmospheric deterioration of glass, improved recommendations for the cleaning and storage of glass, and the introduction of Paraloid B-72® as an adhesive and fill material for glass.

The Conservation Department is also well-known for its outreach and education, including participating and presenting at national and international conferences and hosting numerous beginning or mid-career conservators from around the world for advanced internships in glass conservation. Our Chief Conservator, Stephen Koob, regularly teaches at several of the U.S. based conservation training programs and at international courses offered through International Academic Projects. He also provides on-site archaeological training at the Samothrace Museum, Greece, to numerous students from NYU’s Institute of Fine Arts Conservation Center.

Publications on glass by Conservation Department staff members

General Glass Conservation

Uesato, Lianne, N. Astrid R. van Giffen, and Stephen P. Koob, “Cleaning Smoke Damaged Glass” poster presented at the joint meeting of the Glass and Ceramics Working Group of ICOM-CC and the Ceramics and Glass Group of Icon held in London, September 5-7, 2019. View PDF

Koob, Stephen P. “GLASS.” in Preventive Conservation: Collection Storage, edited by Lisa Elkin and Christopher A. Norris, 100-120. New York: Society for the Preservation of Natural History; American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works; Smithsonian Institution; The George Washington University Museum Studies Program, 2019.

Koob, Stephen P. and N. Astrid R. van Giffen, “Conservation of Vitreous Materials” in The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences, ed. Sandra L. López Varela, Chichester, U.K.: Wiley Blackwell, 2018, pp. 322–327 (also online at www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com).

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., “Caring for your Glass Collection” in Prosit, December 2016.

Koob, Stephen P., “The Conservation Program in the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace”, in Samothracian Connections: Essays in Honor of Jim McCredie, Oxbow Books, London: Oxford, 2010, pp. 197-208.

Koob, Stephen P., Conservation and Care of Glass Objects, Archetype Publications in Association with The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York, 2006.

Koob, Stephen P., “Cleaning glass: a many faceted issue” in Objects Specialty Group Postprints, Volume Eleven, Proceedings of the Objects Specialty Group Session, June 13, 2004, AIC, 2008, pp. 60-70.

Koob, Stephen P., “The conservation and restoration of glass at Samothrace,” in Hyalos, Vitrum, Glass 1st International Conference, Rhodes, Greece, edited by G. Kordas, Athens, 2002, 283-288.

Koob, Stephen P., “New techniques for the repair and restoration of ancient glass” in Tradition and Innovation, Contributions to the IIC 18th International Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 2000, 92-95.

Koob, Stephen P., “The conservation of archaeological glass, with special reference to Chinese glasses” in Proceedings of XVII International Congress On Glass, Vol. 6, Beijing, China, 1995, pp. 475-480.

Glass Deterioration

Koob, Stephen P., “Problems with unstable glasses manufactured in Europe and Asia during the 17th to 20th centuries”, in Conference Proceedings of the International Conference on Glass in Archaeology and History: Cultural, Economic and Artistic Exchanges, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica and the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, 2018, pp. 94-100.

Koob, Stephen P., N. Astrid R. van Giffen, Jersy J. Kunicki Goldfinger, and Robert H. Brill, “Caring for glass collections: the importance of maintaining environmental controls” in Preventive Conservation: The State of the Art, eds. A. Nevin, J.H. Townsend, M. Strlič, N. Blades, D. Thickett, J.K. Atkinson, 2018, IIC: London, UK, pp. S146-S150.

Van Giffen, N. Astrid R. and with Stephen P. Koob, “Deterioration of Vitreous Materials” in The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences, ed. Sandra L. López Varela, Chichester, U.K.: Wiley Blackwell, 2018, pp. 484–487 (also online at www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com).

Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jerzy J., and Stephen P. Koob, “Investigation of the Relationship between Origin, Technology and Durability of Glass, with a Special Focus on Late 17th and 18th Century Glass,” Annual Report 2016: Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw: the institute, 2017, pp. 93–94.

Koob, Stephen P., “Crizzling glasses: problems and solutions” in Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology A, October 2012, 53 (5), 225-227.

Koob, Stephen P., “An experimental treatment for severely crizzled glasses”, in Glass & Ceramics Conservation 2010, Papers presented at the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Glass & Ceramics Working Group, October 3-6, 2010, editorial coordinator H. Roemich, Corning, New York, pp. 128-132.

Koob, Stephen P., “The analysis and treatment of Chinese Qing Dynasty crizzling glass vessels in the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery”, paper presented at the XVIII International Congress on Glass, San Francisco, July 1998. Published in Proceedings of XVIII International Congress on Glass, The American Chemical Society, B:2 Art & Archaeometry, Crizzling and Related Problems in Glass II, pp. 1-6.

Adhesives and fill materials

Tennent, N., S. de Groot and S. P. Koob “The identification and long-term stability of polymer fills in ceramics and glass artifacts: a retrospective assessment involving FTIR characterisation,” in Recent Advances in Glass and Ceramics Conservation 2019 Conference, Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Working Group, London, England, pp. 121-129.

Abel, J.B, and Stephen P. Koob, “The Influence of Glass Transition Temperature on the Performance of Acrylic Thermoplastic Adhesives,” Poster presented at Emerging Conservator Session, 27th Biennial Congress Preventive Conservation: The State of the Art, Turin, Italy, .

Tennent, Norman and Stephen P. Koob, “The Yellowing of Polymer Fills in Vessel Glass: A Retrospective Assessment Involving FTIR Characterization”, poster published in the proceedings of the triennial conference, ICOM-Committee for Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2018.

Koob, Stephen P., “Ceramics and Glass” in Adhesive Compendium for Conservation, compiled by Jane L. Down, Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute, 2015, pp. 188-194.

Koob, Stephen P., “Adhesives for Ceramics and Glass” in Present and Prospect on Ceramics & Glass Conservation, National Palace Museum of Korea, Seoul, Korea, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (NRICH), Cultural Heritage Administration, 2014, pp. 190-202.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., Stephen P. Koob, and Robin O'Hern, "New Developments for Casting ParaloidTM B-72 for Filling Losses in Glass" in Recent Advances in Glass, Stained-Glass, and Ceramics Conservation 2013: ICOM-CC Glass and Ceramics Working Group Interim Meeting and Forum of the International Scientific Committee for the Conservation of Stained Glass (Corpus Vitrearum-ICOMOS), edited by Hannelore Roemich and Kate van Lookeren Campagne. Zwolle: SPA uitgevers, 2013. pp. 53-59.

Uesato, Lianne, “Treatment of Lampworked Glass Ships in a Dome: Use of B-72 as a Support and Compensation Material,” Specialization Project for Buffalo State College Art Conservation Program. May 2012.

Koob, Stephen P., Sarah Benrubi, N. Astrid R. van Giffen, and Nathalie Hanna, “An Old Material, a New Technique: Casting Paraloid B-72 for Filling Losses in Glass” in Symposium Proceedings (CD), Symposium 2011, Adhesives and Consolidants for Conservation: Research and Application, Canadian Conservation Institute: 2011.

Uesato, Lianne, “Assessment of select UV-curing adhesives,” Scientific Research Project for Buffalo State College Art Conservation Program. December 2011.  

Tennent, Norman H. and Stephen P. Koob, “An assessment of polymers used in conservation treatments at the Corning Museum of Glass” in Glass & Ceramics Conservation 2010, Papers presented at the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Glass & Ceramics Working Group, October 3-6, 2010, editorial coordinator H. Roemich, Corning, New York, pp. 100-109.

Koob, Stephen P., “Paraloid B-72®: 25 years of use as a consolidant and adhesive for ceramics and glass” in Holding it All Together, edited by J. Ambers, C. Higgitt, L. Harrison, and D. Saunders, London: Archetype Publications Ltd, 2009, pp. 113-119.

Koob, Stephen P., “Tips and tricks with epoxy and other casting & molding materials” in Object Specialty Group Postprints, Volume 10, AIC: Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 158-172.

Koob, Stephen P., “Restoring high-fired ceramics and glass with Paraloid B-72", Paper presented to the UKIC Ceramics and Glass Conference on Adhesives and Consolidants, October 25, 1997.  Published as a UKIC monograph, 1999.

Koob, Stephen P., “Obsolete fill materials found on ceramics” in Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Spring 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, 49-67.

Koob, Stephen P., “Using Acryloid B-72 for the repair of archaeological ceramics” in Conservation Notes, No. 21, May 1996, Materials Conservation Laboratory, Texas Memorial Museum.

Koob, Stephen P., “The use of Acryloid B‑72 in the treatment of archaeological ceramics: minimal intervention”, paper presented at the Spring 1990 Materials Research Society Meetings, published in Art and Archaeology II Colloquium, San Francisco, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 185, 1991, pp. 591-596.

Koob, Stephen P., “The use of Paraloid B‑72 as an adhesive: Its application for archaeological ceramics and other materials” in Studies in Conservation, 31 (1986), pp. 7‑14.

Koob, Stephen P., “The continued use of shellac as an adhesive‑ Why?” in 1984 IIC Congress, Paris, Adhesives and Consolidants Preprints, p.103.

Koob, Stephen P., “The instability of cellulose nitrate adhesives” in The Conservator, Volume 6, (1982), pp. 31‑34.

Koob, Stephen P., “Consolidation with acrylic colloidal dispersions”, Paper presented to the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation, AIC Preprints, 1981, pp. 86‑89.

Koob, Stephen P., “The removal of aged shellac adhesive from ceramics” in Studies in Conservation, 24 (1979), pp. 134‑135.

Blaschka

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., “The case of the hydrating hydra: Examination and treatment of a Blaschka glass invertebrate model,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, volume 58 nr. 4, 2019, pp. 248-259.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R. and Stephen P. Koob, “Cleaning and Repairing Blaschka Glass Models: Challenges in the Preservation of Exquisite Reproductions of Nature” in Recent Advances in Glass and Ceramics Conservation 2016, ICOM-CC Working Group Glass and Ceramics Interim Meeting, The Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Art and Design, Wrocław, Poland, ed. H. Roemich and L. Fair, pp. 205-214. Paris: International Council of Museums - Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC).

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., Katherine Eremin, and Tracy Owen Drier, “Imitating Nature: The Materials and Preservation Needs of the Blaschka Glass Models” in Journal of Glass Studies, Volume 57, 2015, pp. 213-224.

Drier, Tracy Owen, N. Astrid R. van Giffen, and others, “Proposed Construction Techniques for Blaschka Glass Marine Invertebrate Models” in Proceedings of the 59th Symposium of the Art of Scientific Glassblowing (Eugene, OR), 2014, pp.14-30.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., K. Eremin, and R. Newman “The Harvard Glass Flowers revisited: a technical examination of the composition and deterioration process” in Annales de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, v. 18, Thessaloniki, 2009 (published 2012) pp. 475-480.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., K. Eremin, S. Kirk, J. Tate, and R. Newman, “Deterioration and Preservation of Blaschka Glass” in Glass and Ceramics Conservation 2010, Papers presented at the Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Working Group, October 3–6, 2010, editorial coordinator H. Roemich, Corning, New York, pp. 53-62.

Koob, Stephen P., Scott E. Fulton, and Susan M. Rossi-Wilcox, “‘Botanical Wonders’: the conservation and exhibition of the Harvard glass flowers” in Conservation and Access, Contributions to the London Congress, edited by D. Saunders, J.H. Townsend and S. Woodcock, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2008, pp. 44-49.

Case Studies

Koob, Stephen P., “A New Nilotic Bowl at The Corning Museum of Glass: Conservation and Restoration of the Bowl” in Journal of Glass Studies, Volume 57, 2015, pp. 64-68.

Knothe, Florian, N. Astrid R. van Giffen, and Vanessa Muros, “A late Qing Phenomenon: Glass Cane Panels in Chinese Pictorial Screens” in Orientations, v. 46, no. 3, April 2015, pp. 43-49.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R. and Florian Knothe, “Chinese Pictorial Screens: An Investigation of the Art-Historical Context and Technical and Chemical Composition of 19th-Century Glass Cane Panels” in Annales de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, v. 19, Piran, 2012 (published 2015) pp. 541-547.

Koob, Stephen P. and Linda Gué, "The conservation of two Baccarat crystal torchères at the Shangri La Doris Duke Foundation for Islamic Art, Honolulu, Hawaii" in The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied Arts, 2012 Vienna Congress, edited by S. Cather, A. Nevin, J. H. Townsend, M. Spring, J.K. Atkinson, and D. Eastop, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2012, pp. S173-180.

van Giffen, Astrid and Florian Knothe, “Chinese Pictorial Screens: An Investigation of a 19th-Century Glass Cane Panel” (poster summary) in The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied Arts, 2012 Vienna Congress, edited by S. Cather, A. Nevin, J. H. Townsend, M. Spring, J.K. Atkinson, and D. Eastop, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2012, pp. S389-390.

Koob, Stephen P. and Jutta Annete Page, “A French Feast: The Corning Theatre in Context” in Annales de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, v. 16, London, 2003 (published 2005) pp. 371-374, Colour Plates 116-118.

Koob, Stephen P., “Four beakers or two beakers? Only your conservator knows for sure ...” in Object Specialty Group Postprints, Volume Nine, AIC: Washington, D.C., 2003, pp. 114-130.

Koob, S.P., R.H. Brill, and D. Thimme, “The Kenchreai opus sectile glass panels revisited: a comparison and assessment of previous treatments” in Archaeological Conservation and its Consequences, Preprints of the IIC 16th International Congress, Copenhagen, edited by A. Roy and P. Smith, IIC, 1996, 105-110.

Other

Koob, Stephen P., F. Knothe, and R.H. Brill, “Non-destructive comparative analysis by X-ray fluorescence of Asian and European seventeenth- to nineteenth-century glass” in An Unbroken History: Conserving East Asian Works of Art and Heritage, Contributions to the Hong Kong Congress, 2014, IIC: London, pp. S66-S69.

Fischer, Andrea, Astrid van Giffen, and Gerhard Eggert, “Glass-induced metal corrosion on museum exhibits (GIMME project)” (poster summary) in The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied Arts, 2012 Vienna Congress, edited by S. Cather, A. Nevin, J. H. Townsend, M. Spring, J.K. Atkinson, and D. Eastop, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2012, pp. S355-356.

van Giffen, N. Astrid R., “Cyclododecane as a Temporary Consolidant for Weathered Glass during Conservation Treatments,” Final Research Project for Conservation Training program of the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN). July 2007.  

Ceramics conservation

Koob, Stephen P., “The Conservation and Restoration of Greek Vases: Loss Compensation for Publication and Museum Display,” in Konservieren oder Restaurieren: Die Restaurierung griechischer Vasen von der Antike bis heute, ed. Martin Bentz and Ursula Kästner, Beihefte zu Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, v. 3, 2007, pp. 113–116.

Koob, Stephen P. and Won Yee Ng, “The desalination of ceramics using a semi-automated continuous washing station” in Studies in Conservation, 45 (2000), pp. 265-273.

Koob, Stephen P., “Restoration skill or deceit: manufactured replacement fragments on a Seljuk lustre glazed ewer” in The Conservation of Glass and Ceramics: Research, Practice and Training, James & James Scientific Publishers Ltd., 1999, pp. 156-166.

Sigel, Tony and Stephen P. Koob, “Conservation and restoration under field conditions: ceramics treatment at Sardis, Turkey” paper presented at AIC 25th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 1997, published in Objects Specialty Group Postprints, Volume Five, 1998, AIC, 98-115.

Koob, Stephen P., “Obsolete fill materials found on ceramics” in Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Spring 1998, Volume 37, Number 1, 49-67.

Matheson, Susan B. and Stephen P. Koob, “Panathenaic prize amphora with chariot race, ca. 490 B.C.” Essay in Altered States, Conservation, Analysis and the Interpretation of Works of Art, edited by W. Watson, Mount Holyoke College, MA, 1994, p. 126.

Koob, Stephen P., “The Conservation and Restoration of Red‑figure Stamnos No. 48‑30‑3” in Expedition, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1988, pp. 29‑30.

Koob, Stephen P., “Detachable plaster restorations for archaeological ceramics”, Paper presented to the Jubilee Conservation Conference, Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, 1987, Summer Schools Press, pp. 63‑65.