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Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 47

In this volume, Robert and Deborah Truitt offer a historical survey of the Harrach Glass Works, the second-oldest continuously operated Bohemian glassworks, which is celebrating its 300th anniversary in 2012. And Dedo von Kerssenbrock-Krosigk examines the Cadmiologia of the Prussian mining director Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), which features the most detailed available account of a preindustrial wood-fueled glass furnace. Finally, Lawrence Jessen and Arlene Palmer describe another remarkable document: a portfolio titled Manufacture of Window Glass, written by Jacob Cist (1782-1825), a founding partner of the first glassworks in Washington, D.C. In addition, important recent acquisitions, with photos included, are listed.

Table of Contents and Abstracts

A Production of Cast Bowls in Beirut and Their Trade during the Hellenistic Period in the Western Mediterranean (In French)Danièle Foyp. 11

There are many indications, especially small pieces of raw glass and mosaic glass rods, that a glass workshop was in operation in Beirut (excavation BEY 002) at the end of the first century B.C. This workshop probably produced linear-cut cast bowls and cast ribbed bowls. However, the making of mosaic glass and grooved conical, hemispherical, and ovoid cast bowls cannot be proved.

This article presents various types of excavated bowls that appear to have been made in Beirut. These types of bowls have also been found in the western Mediterranean and studied. Archaeological and archeometric evidence demonstrates that imports from Syria and Palestine prevailed in that region until the end of the Augustinian period.

Glasses from Beirut and Early Roman Mediterranean Sites: An Archeometric Study (In French)Valérie Thirion-Merlep. 37

Samples of two series of glasses discovered in Beirut, as well as “early Roman” (first century B.C.–first century A.D.) glasses from various Mediterranean sites, were analyzed. One group of Beirut glasses is of early Roman date, while the other one is dated from the Umayyad period. The analyses show that both series of Beirut glasses have a composition corresponding to that of Syro-Palestinian glasses. However, there are small compositional differences between the early Roman Beirut glasses and the later Beirut series.

The analyses also reveal that two types of raw-glass production were used to supply secondary workshops in the western Mediterranean during the early Roman period. The alkali source for most of this glass was natron and sand that probably came from the Syro-Palestinian coast. The source of the alkali used in the rest of this glass was plant ash and sands of unknown origin.

Roman Glass in Greece: A Sample from Eretria on the Island of Evia (In French)Brigitte Demierre Prikhodkinep. 55

Evidence regarding the use of glass in Greece during Roman imperial times is provided by glassware recovered from graves. Glass fragments found at the site of ancient buildings are numerous but often so badly damaged that they have not been the subject of any previous study. Analysis of these fragments permits us to examine Roman-period glass in Greece and to investigate its use by the inhabitants of a given location. This article presents the results of an analysis of Roman glassware discovered in the so-called Sebasteion quarter at Eretria on the island of Evia. Most of this glassware was found in a limekiln that was used as a dump at the beginning of the third century A.D. This study offers information that is essential to understanding the site and the glassware that was employed there.

A Roman Mosaic Glass Bowl from the Wadi Dura in YemenIan C. Freestone, Janet C. Ambers, St John Simpson, and Muhannad as-Sayyanip. 69

The heavily weathered mosaic glass bowl discussed in this article has been described as mold-pressed and attributed to the first–second centuries A.D. The associated grave goods have been dated up to two centuries later, suggesting that the bowl was an heirloom. Radiography clarified the color scheme and demonstrated that the bowl was slumped over a former mold. Typologically, it is attributable to the fourth–fifth centuries and is consistent with the other material in the burials.

The Origins of Venetian Beadmaking (In Italian)Paolo Zecchinp. 77

The first documented evidence concerning Venetian conterie, glass beads of various colors and sizes that were employed in necklaces and embroideries, dates back to the 14th century. At that time, they were called paternostri (beads for rosaries) and were probably made by the manufacturers of veriselli, glass gems that imitated precious stones. Paternostri are thought to have been made by melting glass on supports such as rods or iron wires.

During the third quarter of the 15th century, this work was simplified when Venetian glassworkers invented hollow canes. The cylinders obtained by sectioning the canes were placed in metal rods (called spiedi) and were hot-worked. They could also be cold-worked with the grinding wheel. This process was used by Muranese glassmakers in the early 16th century, in competition with Venetian paternostreri (makers of paternostri), who had originally been cristalleri (crystal cutters).

By the middle of the 16th century, the demand for ground and faceted paternostri had declined in favor of the hot-worked beads made with spiedi. About 1575, a new technique was introduced, in which large quantities of smaller beads, called margaritine, were made a ferrazza (with iron pans called fraches).

Venetian documents of the late 16th and early 17th centuries record many instances of transporting beads that, by that time, were called contarie (or, more rarely, conterie) to the ports of Calais, Lisbon, and Amsterdam for shipment to America, Africa, and Asia. At that time, Amsterdam was a center both for the manufacture of Paternoster-werke (the technique had been taught to local glassmakers by the Venetians) and for their commercial sale.

Although Venetian law forbade the relocation of Muranese glassworkers, they nevertheless often took their skills abroad. They also emigrated to Tuscany to make contarie. At the beginning of the 17th century, Tuscan glassmakers did not know how to make these beads, but they were able lampworkers. Such lampworkers, who in Venice were known as supialume and, later, perleri (beadmakers), worked their objects by melting solid glass canes with heat from oil or grease lamps. This technique was different from, but similar to, that employed by the paternostreri. The word contaria continued to be used mostly in referring to the products of the paternostreri and margariteri.

Aventurine, a Muranese Specialty (In Italian)Paolo Zecchinp. 93

The first Venetian documents that contain the words “venturina” and “stellaria” (they have the same meaning) date from the first quarter of the 17th century and report that this kind of glass was intended to be cut like a hard stone. The glass batch, which contained large crystals of copper that shone like gold, was hard to make and nearly impossible to work by blowing. Perhaps as early as the end of the 17th century, the batch was ground to powder or grains and used to decorate blown glasses. During that time, Venetian lampworkers even used it to decorate beads, and they formed it into canes.

In the 19th century, when this glass was called “avventurina,” it was very popular in Europe, Africa, and America, and several factories on the island of Murano (the only ones that knew how to make it) exported it in great quantities. The most famous manufacturer was Pietro Bigaglia, who used it in his famous filigree glass. He also tried to melt and blow it, but in this endeavor, the most capable maker was Salviati.

Harrach Glassworks: 300 Years of Quality and InnovationRobert and Deborah Truittp. 107

In 2012, the second-oldest continuously operated Bohemian glassworks will celebrate its 300th anniversary. Unheralded by the English-speaking world, the glassworks created by Alois Thomas Raimund, Count Harrach, has been a leader in glass technology and design through wars, political upheavals, economic crises, fires, and just about every disaster that can befall a business. This article touches on the historical milestones and the people and products associated with the glassworks’ success. Starting with Elias Müller in 1714 (hard colorless chalk glass, double-walled glass, milk glass), the story continues through Johann Pohl (colored glass, sulphides, overlay, Hyalith, Lithyalin, gold ruby, alabaster), Theodor Kadlec (iridized glass, painted decorations, chandeliers), Jan Mallin (Art Nouveau, Jaspis, Hekla, Formosa, aventurine, Florida), and Milan Metelák (drinking glasses, Hartill, Evening Blue, Albatros) to today’s owner, František Novosad (drinking glasses, chandeliers, lighting). Along the way, the glassworks supplied tableware to noble families and won gold medals at major international exhibitions.

The Cadmiologia of Johann Gottlob Lehmann: A Sourcebook for the History of Preindustrial Glass Furnaces in Central EuropeDedo von Kerssenbrock-Krosigkp. 121

In the first volume of a discourse on the history, mining, and processing of cobalt, published in 1761, the Prussian mining director Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719–1767) describes the construction and use of a furnace for the melting of smalt. Essentially, smalt is cobalt melted into a glass, which, after subsequent grinding, is to be used as a blue pigment for ceramic glazes and oil paintings. Lehmann compares his furnace with glass furnaces that were commonly used in his day. The Cadmiologia, oder Geschichte des Farben-Kobolds, as his treatise is titled, is the most detailed available account of a preindustrial wood-fueled glass furnace, but it seems not to be widely known among glass historians. This article presents a transcript and an English translation of this part of Lehmann’s publication, and it discusses some characteristics of his furnace.

Fresh Insights into Early American Glass Manufacturing: The Jacob Cist PapersLawrence Jessen and Arlene Palmerp. 137

Jacob Cist was an entrepreneur in the anthracite coal trade, founding partner of the first Washington, D.C., glassworks and an active proponent of the American glass industry. Cist’s papers document this involvement and provide important insights into the mid-Atlantic glass industry between 1807 and 1818. Among his papers is a remarkable portfolio titled Manufacture of Window Glass. The core of the document is an extremely detailed record of the capital costs of establishing the Washington City Glass Works including construction details, the sources and preparation of raw materials, and a description of tools. Most significant are his elegant drawings of glass furnaces, not only from the Washington works but also from factories elsewhere. Cist discussed the composition of the Washington labor force, noting its wages and projected productivity. He named workers from other glasshouses. Finally, he copied tables of data to document the competition from imported European glass.

Notesp. 179

Two Fragments of Mold-Blown Glass Beakers with Greek Inscriptions from Tongeren (Belgium)
Alexandrian and Judaean Glass in the Price Edict of Diocletian
French Goblet in Venetian Style at The British Museum
Wolf Collection Objects on Permanent Display in Stuttgart
Nelson Collection Features Glass Animal Designs by Steuben
Rakow Research Library Acquires Tiffany and Lalique Archives
Brill Receives Turner Award
Tiffany, Indian Glass Projects Receive Rakow Grant Funding
Ernst Bacher (1935–2005)
David Frederick Grose (1945–2004)
Gerald Hugh Tait, F.S.A. (1927–2005)
Robert Alan Truitt (1935–2005)
Kenneth Morley Wilson (1922–2005)

Contributorsp. 177
Recent Important Acquisitionsp. 215
Note to Authors and Readersp. 238
Museum Publicationsp. 239
Abstractsp. 246

248 pages
Corning Museum of Glass
Publication Year: 

Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 47