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The Journal of Glass Studies is an annual publication of The Corning Museum of Glass that contains articles and notes of a scholarly nature on the art, history, and technology of glass, dating from ancient times up to the mid-20th century. The complete contents as well as the abstracts of each article that are published within this volume are below.

Table of Contents and Abstracts

The Enameled Cups from MasadaYael Maxp. 11

Ten fairly well-preserved enameled glass fragments were recovered from the summit of Masada during the 1963–1965 excavations. They are dated 20 to 70 CE based on the shape of the vessel and the accepted date for this technique in the first century. These fragments were found in contexts that have been disturbed by first- to seventh-century residents on the site; their original owners can only be hypothesized. A catalogue of these fragments, comprising eight to ten different cups, describes each fragment in detail and analyzes its subjects and painting technique. The gladiator, charioteers and horse, and the bird as a base mark are unique to Masada. The garland, vines, and base dots are similar, even identical, to images on published enameled glass cups of this period from Europe. The origin of these cups, as that of all contemporaneous enameled cups, remains a mystery. The festival of the Floralia is suggested as a unifying iconographic theme.

Roman Glass Vessels in the Graves of the Germanic Elite in SlovakiaErik Hrnčiarikp. 33

The phenomenon of the graves of the Germanic elite in Slovakia has been the subject of multiple studies. Most of them, however, focus on the typological and chronological analyses of the preserved finds, which are often very luxurious items. Almost all graves contained imported Roman glass of diverse quality and quantity. The present study provides a detailed analysis of these finds, but contrary to previous studies, it focuses on their function and their origins. The study reveals that the Germanic elite was strongly influenced by Roman culture. By analyzing this select type of finds—glass—we tried to determine how Roman culture affected different spheres of Germanic life.

Fragments of a Vessel with Gold-Leaf Decoration from AlexandriaRenata Kucharcyzkp. 45

Fragments of a vessel were found in the fill of a late antique auditorium, part of an educational complex uncovered at the Kom el-Dikka site in Alexandria, Egypt. The extraordinary find comprised 17 small fragments of gold glass bearing a highly decorative pattern, which is formed of various geometrical shapes and arranged in a cruciform motif, accompanied by a fragmentary Greek inscription running below the rim. Most probably, this find represents a wineglass, possibly even a liturgical chalice of Syrian origin, dated to the sixth to seventh century.

Medieval Glass Vessels form Pergamon (Turkey)Holger Schwarzerp. 57

This article provides the first detailed overview of the medieval glass vessels from Pergamon, an important site in western Asia Minor. During the excavations inside the fortified acropolis, numerous glass objects from the Byzantine period came to light. Particularly noteworthy are vessels of the so-called Red Streak Ware from the 6th and 7th centuries, prunted beakers from the 12th and 13th centuries, and enameled beakers from the 13th century. They were produced in local glass workshops, as archaeometric analyses have shown. All examined samples of these vessel types belong to the newly defined glass groups HBAl or HLiBAl, which both originate from a local or regional primary glass production. Of particular interest are also some Islamic imports, especially from the Mamluk period, which are not known from any other site in western Asia Minor in such a quantity.

Medieval Glass: Learnings since Phönix aus Sand und AscheHedvika Sedláčkováp. 77

The exhibition Phönix aus Sand und Asche was held in Basel and Bonn in 1988. It was accompanied by an eponymous publication summarizing information about 9th- to mid-16th-century glass. Although the authors, Erwin Baumgartner and Ingeborg Krueger, focused mainly on material from Germany and Switzerland, both the exhibition and the publication played a key role in medieval glass research throughout central Europe. The exhibition introduced information about the development, production, and use of glass that was valid for Poland, the former Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and (to some extent) Scandinavia, areas from which glass had been only rarely reported and published before Phönix. This region was influenced by Venetian glass production.

This article traces the development of research in the field during the succeeding three decades, based on the format of Phönix. The expanded list of objects studied, results of research into glasshouses, and the development of compositional analyses of glass from different regions contribute more detailed information about the similarities and differences of glass in the individual countries. It is worth noting that the premises put forward by Phönix hold firm.

Orientalische Goldemailgläser als ReliquienbehälterIngeborg Kruegerp. 109

Islamic glasses with gilded and enameled decoration form a small category of exotic vessels that were used as containers for relics. Only nine such glasses are known to date: six beakers, two bottles, and one vase. Only one small beaker within a monstrance in Münster has retained its relics, two beakers are lost and merely known from coloured drawings, while the other such glasses are empty. By investigating in detail every example and its history, several new facts can be stated and errors eliminated. As the only common denominator of these very heterogenous glasses is their decoration in gold and enamel, it seems that they were mainly appreciated as precious objects and because of their provenance from the Holy Land. When such a glass came into a church treasury (probably by donation), it could be deemed worthy to house holy relics.

Authentic or Not? Searching for Firm Ground in the Discussion on Renaissance Venetian Gilded and Enameled GlassesFrançoise Barbe and Erwin Baumgartnerp. 131

The present paper addresses the history and issues surrounding a selection of gilded and enameled Venetian glasses, considered to be among the most precious objects in Renaissance decorative arts. To successfully distinguish authentic Venetian gilded and enameled glasses from other productions conflated with them—whether façon de Venise, copies, or fakes, irrespective of period or place produced—art historical benchmarks and confirmed data are needed as points of reference. The alliance between science and art history recommended itself as a promising interpretive path. This article evokes art historical lines of research, while the following article by Isabelle Biron and Marco Verità in this volume of the Journal of Glass Studies, takes an analytical approach to establish criteria for identifying genuine Venetian gilded and enameled glass.

Analytical Investigation of Genuine Renaissance Venetian Enameled and Gilded GlassMarco Verità and Isabelle Bironp. 157

Venetian enameled glass is one of the most significant subjects in the study of the art and technology of Renaissance glassmaking. The aim of this study is to propose a methodology including rules for identifying enameled and gilded Renaissance glass objects which follow the Venetian recipes. This paper presents the results of an analytical study on a wide selection of enameled glass artworks from museums and collections to determine the chemical composition of the glass and of the enamels. The chemical analyses were performed using non-invasive PIXE-PIGE on genuine Renaissance Venetian artworks, which were complemented with the study of enamels from archaeological sherds by SEM-EDS. The collected results constitute an initial dataset of genuine Renaissance Venetian enameled glass objects and disclose interesting “secrets” about the raw materials and coloring techniques for enamels used by contemporary Venetian glassmakers.

Venetian Glass Saltcellars of the RenaissanceRosa Barovier Mentasti and Cristina Toninip. 197

This article focuses on Renaissance Venetian glass saltcellars, including some peculiar shapes. These have been identified on the basis of documents, paintings, archaeological finds, and vessels in public collections. Saltcellars with globular feet are found in Tuscan and Venetian archival papers and in several Italian figural sources of the late 15th and 16th centuries. Small bowls on a star-shaped base-ring with pointed feet and saltcellars with a flattened spherical body and a simple base-ring are two other categories documented by examples in public collections, Venetian-area paintings, and finds from the Venetian lagoon and the Serenissima territories. Simple bowls without particular characteristics were also used as containers for salt. A new form of Renaissance saltcellar that differs from the previous ones has also been identified: footed bowls with a broad, flat rim. Depicted particularly in Venetian paintings from 1540 onward, they were designed to serve exclusively as containers for salt.

Patna, Lucknow, and the Curious Crest of John Deane: An Investigation of Two Indian Glass Centers and a Colonial Drinking SetTara Desjardinsp. 247

Rarely is Indian glass attributable to a known person or place of production. While a few references to glass exist in Mughal chronicles and, much later, in British industrial surveys, centers of Indian glass remain mostly unknown, making it difficult to determine any specific provenance for Indian glass beyond its common “Mughal” attribution. This article presents two known centers that have since the late 16th century been repeatedly referred to as sites where both the production and the circulation of glass occurred: Patna and Lucknow. Drawing on chemical analyses, archival accounts, East India Office Records, and 19th-century industrial surveys, the article attempts to connect these glass centers with a rare drinking service that bears an unusual owner’s mark: the crest of John Deane, a colonial administrator of the English East India Company and president of Bengal from 1723 to 1726, and then 1728 to 1732.

The Javorniki GlassworksMateja Kos and Žiga Šmitp. 269

Forest glassworks of the early 19th century are regarded as a predecessor of industrial glass production. Though their output was significant, documented products of forest glassworks are scarce. A comparative analytical study is made for three series of glass products: a series donated to the present Narodni muzej Slovenije (National Museum of Slovenia) in 1834 by entrepreneur Sigismund Pagliaruzzi, a series of similar or approximately contemporaneous glass objects, and a series of glass fragments from the location of the Pagliaruzzi forest glassworks located in the wooden massif of Javorniki in Slovenia. The analysis confirms matching composition and also reveals some other technical details, such as occasional use of imported soda.

The Snowflake Warrior Vase: A Glass Object Inspired by the Chinese Beijing Opera Shelly Xuep. 283

An unusually large cameo-carved vase in The Corning Museum of Glass, known as the Snowflake Warrior Vase for the subjects of its carved decorations, is one of the masterpieces of 19th-century Chinese glass. It is one of a small group of similarly shaped round-bodied, long-necked vases, all carved using an unusual type of snowflake-glass base overlaid with thick red glass. However, their history and attribution has until now been somewhat misunderstood. This essay aims to correct this and offer further context for both the type of glass and the origins of the iconography.


Introduction and a Select Bibliography on Scandinavian GlassMette Bielefeldt Bruun, Gunnel Holmér, Kaisa Koivisto, and Susanne Outsenp. 297
Aspects of the Development of Swedish Glass Manufacturing: An Overview 1500–1915 Erika Lagerbielkep. 303

Recent findings show traces of glassmaking in Sweden in the 5th century CE. Monastic notes suggest that Cistercian monks were making window glass during the 12th century. From 1556 glassmakers were established in Sweden, producing artifacts and window glass, primarily for the royal court. They were recruited from glassmaking centers such as Venice and Bohemia, bringing inherited, tacit knowledge from their home countries. Eventually craftspeople developed different means to support their creative processes. Books with patterns, including one example printed in 1699, were produced for the trade and spread internationally. A Swedish domestic glass industry slowly started to emerge during the 18th century, a product of socioeconomic development. An implementation of artistic design processes took place in the early years of the 20th century. International mobility can be seen as a key factor to Swedish glass manufacturing, initially in the migration of skilled craftspeople bringing their knowledge to Sweden, and later as an international exchange of value-based ideas that provided the content for the design-driven product development of the early 20th century.

Norwegian Glassware from Hadeland Glassworks Produced in the Mid-19th Century: A New Methodology to Establish Directories of the Various Models as well as Quantification of Volumes ProducedJan Fikkanp. 321

The author has systematically assessed the quantities of drinking glasses produced at the Norwegian glass factory Hadeland in the period 1855–1890, when Hadeland underwent a massive change in their production to focus on finer household glass. The details in monthly manufacturing records were analyzed and organized in a database that facilitates sorting of the data chronologically by type of drinking vessels as well as by model. This allows correlation of trends in the output tables with other historical records, demonstrating the impacts of events on the production of glass furnace fires, macroeconomic trends, as well as manufacturing for exports. This methodology is also useful for separating locally produced drinking glasses from imported glass for sale.

Sverre Pettersen: The Modernist Reformer of Norwegian Glass DesignInger Helene N. Stemshaugp. 335

Sverre Pettersen (1884–1959), designer for Christiania Glasmagasin, was a pioneer of Norwegian design. He introduced a new, simplified visual language inspired by current European trends while drawing on older Norwegian glass production. His designs of both mass-produced objects and commissioned works modernized the Norwegian glass industry. Pettersen was strongly influenced by the Foreningen Brukskunst (Norwegian applied arts association) and its initiatives for collaboration between art and industry and designing affordable and appealing wares for all of society. His increasing understanding of the nature of glass and its production informed his merger of modern design principles with the possibilities of mass production. Following a Nordic industrial trend, he designed pressed glass for popular everyday use that adhered to his design principles. At the end of his career, Pettersen scaled back his activities at Hadeland Glassverk and began teaching and transforming the field commercial illustration.

Notesp. 353

Glass of the Roman Necropolis of Beirut (1st–3rd Century CE)—Typology and Funeral Rites: An Interim Report A Phallus-Shaped Glass Vessel from Pannonia
From a Goddess of Fate to Saint Peter: A New Identification of a Figure-Engraved Fragment in The Corning Museum of Glass
A Mamluk Glass Weight from the Old City of Jerusalem
A New Perspective on Altare: Preliminary Data between Archaeology and Glass Production
Bronzo, diaspro e vetro: Piccoli ritratti di Bartolomeo d'Alviano
An Engraved Footed Vessel from Tallinn, Estonia
The Corning Museum of Glass Awards Rakow Grants for 2021 to Four Projects
Jaume Barrachina (1951–2020)
Robert H. Brill (1929–2021)
Olga Drahotová (1932–2021)
Samuel J. Herman (1936–2020)
Jane Shadel Spillman (1942–2021)

Information for Contributorsp. 409

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A photograph of a sword handle with blue and coral glass jewels sits on a blue background.