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Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 62

The Journal of Glass Studies is an annual publication of The Corning Museum of Glass that contains articles and notes of a scholarly nature on the art, history, and technology of glass, dating from ancient times up to the mid-20th century. The complete contents as well as the abstracts of each article that are published within this volume are below.

Table of Contents and Abstracts

Copper-Red Glass Beads of the Han Dynasty Excavated in Yunnan Province, Southwestern ChinaZhou Gu, Wugan Luo, Xiaochenyang Jiang, Nian Liu, Yanan Fu, Lili Zhang, Min Yang, and Yimin Yangp. 11

Indo-Pacific glass beads were widespread in South, Southeast, and East Asia, as well as in Africa, and studies of these beads in China will contribute much to our understanding of early Chinese glass exploitation and maritime exchange. In this study, five tiny opaque red beads found in Muyi Cemetery, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and dated to the Han dynasty (202 B.C.E.–220 C.E.) were analyzed to determine their production technology and to explore their possible provenance. Chemical analysis demonstrated that these beads are potash glass with higher CaO and Al2O3, which may have been imported from Southeast Asia, and that copper was the major coloring agent.

These beads provide new evidence for early communication and trade networks between China and Southeast Asia, and for the production technology of Indo-Pacific beads. SR-µCT and SR-XRD have been shown to have a great potential in research on ancient glass beads, especially the latter, which could disclose the nature of the crystal inside the glass samples because X-rays will penetrate them during testing.

Crown Glass Windows from MasadaYael Maxp. 23

Seven partly restorable round glass windows, blown with the crown glass technique, were uncovered on Masada. The glass disks are rather large (Diam. 34–43 cm) and were probably fabricated at the same time by the same source. They were recovered from the Large Bathhouse and the entrance rooms to the central courtyard of Administrative Building VII. These buildings, like almost all of the structures on Masada, were destroyed by an earthquake sometime between the second and fourth centuries, ruling out the possibility of a late Roman or Byzantine origin for the glass. The windows were likely ordered by someone in authority who enjoyed access to the latest innovations in the making of window glass. Although no comparable windows were found elsewhere, their history points unequivocally to Herod the Great, thus suggesting that the most probable date for these windows is the last quarter of the first century B.C.E.

Blown Mosaic Glass from Augusta Raurica (Switzerland) E. Marianne Stern and Sylvia Fünfschillingp. 41

The Roman town of Augusta Raurica, located near Basel in northwestern Switzerland, produced the largest number of blown mosaic glass fragments known until now. They date from the late first century to the end of the second century. Glassworking experiments at the archaeological site of Villa Borg (Perl, Germany) enabled us to explore different ways to create such vessels and to better identify the ancient mosaic patterns, which are often badly distorted. The focus on technical details in the catalog of fragments from Augusta Raurica will, the authors hope, assist scholars who wish to publish similar ware. Three vessels that appear to have been blown but lack the characteristics are likewise discussed. A preliminary list of blown mosaic glass from elsewhere shows a distribution pattern reaching from Britain through northwestern Europe to the northern Black Sea coast.

Glass Use as a Reflection of Abandonment Processes: The ‘Abud Refuge Cave, Roman Judea (133/134 C.E.) Ruth E. Jackson-Tal, Dvir Raviv, Boaz Langford, Uri Davidovich, Amos Frumkin, Roi Porat, and Boaz Zissup. 69

In the early second century, from 132 to 135/136 C.E., the Jews in the province of Judea, led by Simeon bar Kokhba, rebelled against the Roman Empire. This revolt was the last of several confrontations between the Jewish population and Roman authorities following the First (Great) Revolt. The Bar Kokhba revolt is well documented in archaeological surveys and excavations, mostly at rural sites, refuge caves, and hideouts, which unearthed numerous and various artifacts of material culture.

This article discusses the glass vessels from a single refuge cave (‘Abud Cave) as a reflection of site abandonment processes. The ‘Abud Cave differs from the other known refuge caves in its location in the region of western Samaria (northern Judean Hills), in the preservation of an exceptionally large quantity of archaeological finds within a composite cave, and in the slightly earlier date of its abandonment in 133 / 134 C.E.

A Mold-Blown Head Flask: Late Roman Glass in a Wider Context Christopher S. Lightfootp. 83

In Glass of the Caesars, Donald Harden implicitly assumed that the mold-blowing technique was used only by specialist workshops. That 1987 publication included the blue head flask in The Corning Museum of Glass (59.1.150: p. 175, cat. no. 96). This article focuses on another blue head flask, probably blown in the same mold but previously unpublished, that is now in The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2012.479.1). A 1997 study by David Whitehouse discusses four other groups of jugs that have the same characteristics as the head flasks—notably, a wishbone-shaped handle drawn down from the neck to the body, and an applied coil base. These distinctive features, together with the consistent use of a translucent cobalt-blue glass for the body, argue strongly in favor of attributing them all to a single workshop.

Here, 39 vessels are listed, thus adding 14 new examples to the checklist provided by Whitehouse. What is most significant about the products of this workshop is that the glassworkers did not restrict themselves to mold blowing alone but also used two different techniques: blowing and dip molding. Taken together, they illustrate the complexity of the Roman glass industry and provide insight into the technical versatility that an individual or team could employ to make a range of glass vessels.

A Glass Paten from Venice in Medieval Ripoll Joan Duran-Portap. 95

This article focuses on the study of an unpreserved glass vessel mentioned in several inventories from the Catalan Abbey of Santa Maria de Ripoll, dated to the 11th and 12th centuries. This vessel, identified as a discus (i.e., a round dish), was used as a paten on the main altar of the abbey church, after it was given to Ripoll by his powerful patron Oliba Cabreta, count of Cerdanya and Besalú. The origin of the vessel is unknown.

The author suggests that it was taken to the Pyrenees by the Venetian doge Pietro I Orseolo, who went into exile in 978, journeying to Sant Miquel de Cuixà, an abbey located quite close to Ripoll and also under Oliba Cabreta’s patronage. In addition, it is plausible to think that the vessel would have been of Byzantine origin, and its form is comparable to that of examples preserved today in Venice’s Basilica di San Marco.

Barovier: la più importante dinastia di vetrai muranesi Paolo Zecchinp. 105

The Barovier family of Venice has a history seven centuries long. The first mention of this family on Murano dates back to 1324 with Iacobello Barovier. We do not know what he did, but his sons Antonio and Bartolomeo were glassworkers. Since that time, the name Barovier has always been associated with glass.

The most important member of the family is Angelo, who lived during the first half of the 15th century. It was he who discovered the technique to make glass so perfect that it was named cristallo. Because of his technical knowledge, his fame spread well beyond Murano. His sons are also famous, as is his daughter Maria, who is supposed to have created the beads named rosetta, obtained from canes with concentric layers that overcome the problem of mixing different colors. She and her brothers were experts in this field, thanks to their father’s instruction.

The family reached its greatest fame (and size) in the 16th century, a period in which its members were owners of factories “alla stella” (at the Star) and “alla campana” (at the Bell). During the 18th century, the Baroviers were known as glass masters, and by the end of the 19th century, they were the owners of the Artisti Barovier factory on Murano.

Zur Quelle der Paradiesflüsse: Zwei venezianische Glasschalen mit Paradiesfluss-Personifikationen und deren Vorbild Ingeborg Krueger p. 127

The model for the figures of the four biblical rivers of Paradise and two angels on a blue-green bowl in the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna is found in Carl Heideloff’s Die Ornamentik des Mittelalters, Nuremberg: Conrad Geiger, 1843–1852. It is an engraving that reproduces the top of a 12th-century portable altar that is now in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels. Francesco Toso Borella, who decorated that bowl around 1887, probably saw the Italian edition of Heideloff’s publication from 1859.

Because the same model was used for the figures in thick white enamel on a bowl of purple glass in the Mimara Museum in Zagreb, it cannot be a unique glass object dating from the ninth century, as has heretofore been maintained. Instead, it too was probably made on Murano in the late 19th century. Only half of the bowl is decorated, so it is an unfinished piece that was intended to be a sample for that special kind of relief enamel.

Le Céramiste Edmond Lachenal et la verrerie Daum : Une collaboration méconnue. Les Verres artistiques, 1895–1898 Jérôme Simerp. 137

At the turn of the 20th century, Edmond Lachenal (1855–1948) and the Daum glass factory collaborated on two separate occasions: the models designed by the Parisian ceramist were executed by the glassmakers in Nancy. This article focuses on the fruits of the first period: the artistic glasses. The list of the 10 or so known pieces, presented here in the form of a catalog, and the discovery of new printed sources demonstrate that this production was not exclusively intended for the 1897 Brussels International Exposition, but began in 1895 and was still exhibited in 1898. Quantitatively, this production may be estimated at three or four dozen glasses. Comparing them with pieces produced by each of the partners reveals the reuse of form and ornamentation, making the effort to assign attributions futile, especially because the contractual terms of the collaboration are unknown.

Introduction. Scandinavian Glass: Aesthetic, Technological, and Cultural Connections between Neighboring Glass-Producing Countries Mette Bielefeldt Bruun and Susanne Outzenp. 163
Scandinavian Glass from Sweden, Finland, and Denmark: From the Early Modern Period to Industrial Glass Production Gunnel Holmér, Kaisa Koivisto, Susanne Outzen, and Mette Bielefeldt Bruunp. 167

Glassworks throughout Scandinavia have many similarities, but each country had its own historical development. This article presents an introduction to the history of Scandinavian glass production in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, and it demonstrates how the glassworks have a common industrial history, ranging from their initial establishment and entrepreneurship to the simultaneous closing of the factories around the year 2000. But this introduction also highlights regional differences resulting from exhibitions, sales fairs, competition between glassworks, local innovation, and the employment of great glass designers and artists.

Medieval and Early Modern Utility Glass in Denmark Georg Haggrén, Stuart Whatley, and Hanna Dahlströmp. 185

From 2010 to 2016, the Museum of Copenhagen undertook excavations in the city’s center in preparation for the new Metro Cityring. These excavations produced enormous quantities of finds, including thousands of glass fragments that provide an overview of utility glass used in medieval and early modern Copenhagen. The foreign imports were remarkable, but the “domestic” glass industries were also important. This article discusses the glass remains from the Gammel Strand, the center of the harbor area from 1400 to 1800, as well as from Rådhuspladsen, located at the western gateway of the medieval and early modern city.

The oldest glass finds consisted of fragments of imported Bohemian and German beakers, followed by glass manufactured in the Danish realm in the mid16th century. Most of the forms were in accord with international design, but there were some peculiarities too. This may be due to the complicated history of Danish glass production, which at times was centered in what is now part of Germany, Norway, or Sweden.

The finds from Gammel Strand illustrate a three-century tradition of “Danish” utility glass before the establishment of Holmegaard Glassworks in 1825. They reveal how the Danish glass made in Jutland and Scania, and perhaps also Zealand, was used in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, in Holstein in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and in Norway from the beginning to the middle of the 18th century.

The First Steps toward Designed Glass in Denmark to 1925: Cultural and Technological Impulses Jan Kockp. 213

The Danish king established a glassworks in the Norwegian part of the kingdom in 1739. Following the separation of Denmark and Norway in 1814, no glassworks remained inside the countries’ borders. In the following decades, new glassworks were established in Denmark, the first few of which were built around Rendsburg in the duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. The most important of these glasshouses was named Friedrichsfeld. It was followed by the glass works in Flensburg and, later, in Denmark itself, Holmegaard in 1825. Soon thereafter, glassworks were erected in Conradsminde, Mylenberg, Aalborg, Fyens, Kastrup, Aarhus, and a few other locations.

All of these glassworks produced what was in normal use in a country with a relatively weak economy. Most of the fashionable glass was imported from the German region and, to a lesser extent, France, Belgium, and England. The first Danish-designed glass was made about 1900, and in the succeeding decade, notable designers included Liisberg, Morávek, Brendekilde, and Hammershøi.

Jacob Eiler Bang: Danish Idealism Based on Reality Susanne Outzen and Mette Bielefeldt Bruunp. 229

Jacob Eiler Bang (Danish, 1899–1965) was hired by Holmegaard Glassworks in 1925. In 1928, he was appointed artistic leader, and from then on, he was in charge of design at the glassworks until July 1941. Bang’s legacy as a Danish glass designer is a substantial one. The glass he made for Holmegaard is known worldwide, and he is among the relatively few Danish designers to have won several prizes at world exhibitions and at the Milan Triennial.

When Bang began his work at Holmegaard, he was very much influenced as a writer and designer by the ideologies and debates behind modernistic architecture and design of the interwar period. This article attempts to look, through the lens of his own writings, at Bang as a designer during a time of change, not only for Holmegaard Glassworks but also for society in the period between the two world wars.

How Finnish Utility Glass Became Part of Scandinavian Design Kaisa Koivistop. 245

Swedish glass design was regarded as the ideal in Finland in the 1920s. After World War II, Finland was in a difficult political and economic position, having lost the war against the Soviet Union. The Golden Age of Finnish Glass was built upon these exceptional conditions. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Finnish designers had a unique opportunity to design mainly art glass, which proved to be successful in many international exhibitions, including the Milan Triennials of the 1950s.

Cooperation with designers in other Nordic countries began in the 1930s. High-quality utility glass is an essential part of the image of Scandinavian glass. However, it was obvious that the desired positive image could not be achieved with simple everyday articles alone. With art glass, Finnish design became part of Scandinavian design and was intended to prove that Finland was indeed part of the Western world.


A Large Turquoise Glass Writing Palette from Tutankhamen’s Tomb
Composition and Origin of the Eighth Century B.C.E. Glass Inlays from Salamis, Tomb 79
A Unique Silver-Stained Glass Vessel from Eighth- to Ninth-Century Šaqunda (Cordoba)
Aquatic Glass Floors in Early Islam and a Unique Bottle in Tehran
Glassworking Demonstrations Gain Steam
Creating a Sample Book of Glass Beads Used in the Western Pacific in the Colonial Era: An Interim Report
Shattered! The Macbeth-Evans Glass Company and the American Flint Glass Workers Strike of 1904
Richard J. Price: An Appreciation
2020 Rakow Grant Funds to Support Three Research Projects
Jaroslava Brychtová (1924–2020)
Annamaria Larese (1958–2020)
Gertrud Platz-Horster (1942–2019)
Stephen Rolfe Powell (1951–2019)
Jennifer Price (1940–2019)
Paul J. Smith (1931–2020)
Frank Woolley (1941–2020)

Submission Guidelinesp. 310
Museum Publicationsp. 312
Abstractsp. 313

Publication Year: 

Black cover with photograph of yellow vase with long cylindrical neck and spherical base on a background that fades from darker to light gray from top to bottom.